The concept of «military jargon» and its distinctive features | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: Филология, лингвистика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №15 (514) апрель 2024 г.

Дата публикации: 12.04.2024

Статья просмотрена: 2 раза

Библиографическое описание:

Анисимова, И. В. The concept of «military jargon» and its distinctive features / И. В. Анисимова, Д. И. Дихтяренко. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2024. — № 15 (514). — С. 131-133. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/514/112780/ (дата обращения: 21.06.2024).



The article considers the concept of English military jargon as a separate part of vocabulary that has certain properties. Distinctive features of the concept of «military jargon» are described. The need to differentiate it from other layers of vocabulary is justified. It is concluded that the study of English military jargon by military translators is relevant.

Ключевые слова : English, military jargon, armed forces, military translator.

One of the important problems in linguistic works is the problem of interaction between language and society, which cannot be resolved without studying the specifics of the functioning of the vocabulary of language in various layers of society and professional spheres. Closed and closed varieties of colloquial speech suggest the presence of social and professional jargons. If we consider jargon as one of the most vivid and dynamic forms of language, then many phenomena of language that are primarily related to its historical, social and functional aspects can be interpreted in a completely new way.

At the beginning of the XXI century, against the background of global instability caused to a large extent by various military interventions in different countries of the world, mainly coalitions of Western countries led by the United States, there is an increased interest to the Armed Forces of the United States and its allies, primarily Great Britain and other countries. According linguists working in the field of military translation, the interest is caused, first of all, to the language of these countries, especially to the military vocabulary of the English language. However, when considering military vocabulary, it is also worth considering the fact that in addition to the established and generally accepted expressions and phrases, the rules of communication, there is a fairly large share of informal vocabulary. The significant part of such vocabulary is a combination of colloquial and expressive words and expressions called jargon.

Jargon is a social dialect that differs from the spoken language in specific vocabulary and phraseology, as well as in the special use of word-forming means and expressiveness of expressions, but the jargon does not have its own grammatical and phonetic system. Slang words and expressions are called «jargons».

Some explanatory dictionaries treat the term «jargon» as:

1) unrelated, empty and meaningless utterance;

2) the specific and unusual language of various professional groups;

3) mixed language or dialect.

In other words, jargon is understood as a specific language or unusual speech of various groups that differ in professional characteristics.

Military jargon as an open and mobile layer of vocabulary reflects the diverse activities of military personnel. But at the same time, not so much attention is paid to its research and study as to other varieties of reduced vocabulary. One of the reasons may be the secrecy and secrecy of military service.

Many scholars argue that the boundaries of jargon are relatively extensive and transparent, since jargon, as a «lexical marker», distinguishes one or another social group seeking isolation from the rest of the language community. In addition, jargon is endowed with emotionally evaluative expressive functions. These functions, in most cases, are able to express a negative characteristic, which is the main reason that the term is often associated with negative-evaluative coloring. [1, p. 72] In accordance with the above, using this or that jargon, a person identifies his belonging to a certain social group and expresses his attitude towards this social group.

It should be noted that the vocabulary of jargon is built on the basis of the literary language in various ways, for example, by metaphorization, rethinking, sound restriction, reissuing, as well as by assimilating foreign words and morphemes.

V. M. Zhirmunsky believes that slang vocabulary is created from the local dialect or from the vocabulary of a common language. Owing to the simple methods of word formation in this language, but in a special figurative meaning, perceived only by the participants of this social group; the standard definition of a common language is replaced by a nickname or nickname, a vivid representation that has a certain emotional connotation, parodic, mocking and ironic [3, p. 45].

The origin of such jargons is likely only in conditions of corporate organization and cohesion, which form strong language skills and everyday traditions, which are deliberately supported by old members of the corporation, who are taught a beginner, piling on comic punishments for deviating from the established custom [4].

There is the term «professional jargon», which is understood as a certain set of abbreviated and simplified words to refer to concepts and terms that are often used by people who are professionally united, that is, who have a certain range of occupations. Professional jargon in the way of word formation is similar to «ordinary» jargon. Its purpose is not only to indicate that an individual belongs to a certain professional group, but also to accelerate mutual understanding and verbal communication.

Representatives of one profession use jargon to designate special phenomena for which there are no names in standard vocabulary, or they are too difficult to perceive. As features of this linguistic phenomenon, D. V. Chistyakov singles out wordplay, frequent use of new word-forming models and a tendency to violate linguistic norms [5, p. 42].

A number of researchers note that there is a difference: professional jargons are used most often in unofficial communication conditions in the colloquial speech of specialists on professional topics, and in official communication conditions, both orally and in writing, special vocabulary is used [2, p. 26–28].

Professional jargons should be distinguished from special sub-languages that are distinguished by exact terminology in a particular professional field of activity. At the same time professional jargons are lexically and stylistically heterogeneous and have a difference which lies in the instability and speed of change of the most popular vocabulary. In addition, the main difference between the special sublanguage was the presence of a written form. But despite this, due to the openness and greater democratization of society, the use of not only oral, but also the written form of professional jargon is increasingly observed.

The vocabulary that is used in business discourse is neutral. Although not only orally, but also in written speech, communication participants use expressive-figurative and emotional-assessment means. For example, in such a form of business communication as a press conference, the functions of informing and influencing the speaker on the interlocutor are simultaneously carried out, while the difference in functions determines the use of professional jargon by business partners.

The most detailed term «professional jargon» is investigated by V. A. Khomyakov. He defines the term «professional jargon» as «colloquial microsystems with professionally limited vocabulary and phraseology, which has a playfully ironic, i.e. general peyorative expression and basic communicative function, used by various socially professional groups» [6, p. 6].

Professional jargon coexists with a professional lexical system, and at the same time opposes it.

Professional jargon shows specific concepts that require not a synonymous interpretation, but descriptive definitions in the literary standard. Outside the sphere of use, professional jargon is hardly understandable, with rare exceptions.

But often professional jargon becomes understandable for all native speakers, as they lose their professional character, and thereby turn into expressions and words of common slang. In each profession, in addition to highly specialized terminology, there are nickname words that have a specific emotional coloring, in most cases parodic, mocking or ironic. Such jargons easily turn into general slang» [4].

Along with professional jargon, there are corporate jargon. They exist in groups of people who are connected by school or institute, music, tourism or sports, or military service.

According to the definition of V. A. Khomyakov, corporate jargons are microsystems of vernacular, with socially and professionally limited vocabulary and phraseology, which are used by different interest groups outside of production activities [6, p. 8].

The existence of a particular corporate jargon, usually short-term, depends entirely on the vagaries of fashion, a change in the hobby of young people, some popular phenomena, etc., while professional jargon is a much more static phenomenon, depending on the social significance of a particular profession.

Thus, professional military jargon is a certain set of simplified words that denote certain concepts and terms used in a certain professional field. According to many researchers, the participant in the act of communication, in addition to neutral vocabulary, uses professional military jargon as an emotionally evaluative means of expression, which in turn expresses the subjective attitude of the speaker to the subject of speech and conveys the emotions of the participants in the act of communication. Metaphorical expressions in this case are proof of both the unity of a common thought, concept and image, and the qualitative originality of the image.

References:

  1. Bondaletov V. D. Social linguistics: tutory. manual. — M.: Enlightenment, 1987–160 p.
  2. Garbovsky N. K. Comparative style of professional speech. — 2009–144 p.
  3. Zhirmunsky V. M. General and Germanic linguistics. — L.: Science, 1976. — 698 p.
  4. Khomyakov V. A. Introduction to the study of slang of the main component of English vernacular. — Librocom Publishing House, 2009. — 104 p.
  5. Chistyakov D. V. Jargonisms as a phenomenon of secondary nomination: diss. cand. philol. Sciences. — M., 2009. — 155 p.
  6. Khomyakov V. A. Structural-semantic and socio-stylistic features of English expressive vernacular. — Vologda: VGPI, 1974. — 183 p.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): VGPI.


Ключевые слова

English, armed forces, military jargon, military translator

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