The pedagogical practice of students is an integral part of the main educational programs of higher vocational education specialties. It allows you to consistently and in a specific system during all years of study combine theoretical training of students with their practical activities in educational institutions of all types. Its goal is the practical development by students of various types of pedagogical activity, the mastery of the foundations of the pedagogical culture of a modern teacher. Teaching practice plays an important role in terms of preparing students for future professional activities.
The practice is organized in the basic municipal secondary schools assigned to the university, lyceums and gymnasiums on the basis of agreements on the practice at the educational institutions. Pedagogical practice implements the educational goals and objectives of vocational training, educates and develops the pedagogical abilities of the future teacher, has on each course its own tasks, content and structure; involves participation in it graduating departments of relevant institutions.
The main objectives of teaching practice are: to develop students' love for the teaching profession; to stimulate the improvement of their teaching abilities; to deepen and consolidate the theoretical knowledge obtained at the university on pedagogy, physiology, methods of teaching the English language, to teach how to put them into practice in educational work with students; to acquaint students with the current state of educational work in high school, with advanced pedagogical experience in solving the problems of training and education; prepare for conducting various types of lessons using a variety of forms and methods, innovative technologies, didactic material; teach to perform the functions of a class teacher, work with students, conduct individual work with children; develop students a creative research approach to teaching, instill skills in analyzing the results of their work, and form needs for self-education and self-improvement of professional and pedagogical knowledge and skills.
Teaching practice is a practical educational activity aimed at the formation of students' professional skills and professional thinking.
Pedagogical practice involves:
For academic work: studying the system of work of an educational institution; teaching the ability to put into practice the principles of the unity of training and education: to formulate and concretize the teaching, developing and educational goals of the lesson, to highlight the basic worldview concepts in the content of the educational material; mastery of professional and pedagogical skills of conducting extracurricular work on the subject; familiarization with various methods and technologies for conducting the lesson, other forms of organization of training (laboratory and practical work, optional classes, study tours), etc..; the acquisition of skills to organize educational work with students, taking into account their age and individual characteristics; the formation of a creative approach to professional and pedagogical activity; acquaintance with new pedagogical and information and communication technologies.
In educational work: familiarization with planning and mastering the basic methods of organizing educational work with students; the study of the system of work of children's public organizations and the organization of the system in an educational institution; familiarization with the system of work of the class teacher of an educational institution; acquisition of skills of independent educational work with students, taking into account their age and individual characteristics; the study of age and individual characteristics of students, the compilation of psychological and pedagogical characteristics; the formation of skills to pedagogically correctly build their relationships with students, their parents, colleagues; mastery of skills of social pedagogical work.
On research work: conducting research on pedagogy and private methods; the study of advanced pedagogical experience of a teacher, an educational institution; fulfillment of tasks of educational research, research nature.
Skills formed in the process of passing pedagogical practice: to observe the activities of students, to study the individual characteristics and interests of the student using various methods (for example, questionnaires, conversations, observations); To study features of the attached class; to carry out a differentiated and individual approach to students; supervise self-education and self-education of individual students; to work with difficult children; set goals and objectives of the educational process.
Development of its content: to study the system of educational work of the class teacher and subject teacher; use advanced methods, techniques and tools in the educational process; plan and systematically conduct educational activities; plan class work, conduct focused work with parents; to conduct individual, group and collective work in the classroom; analyze, evaluate and generalize their experience, the results of their educational activities, as well as the experience of other teachers; keep the necessary pedagogical documentation and prepare reports.
Students' work at all stages of pedagogical practice is evaluated by differentiated classification. Evaluation criteria are as follows:
- Determining the quality of students' activities: theoretical preparedness for the subject; methodical literacy; active participation in the analysis and evaluation of lessons attended; active participation in extracurricular activities on the subject; close contact with students; performance of the current work of the class teacher; independence in the preparation and conduct of educational activities; attitude to teaching practice (systematicity, independence, initiative and creativity in work); introspection of their pedagogical activity; preparation of reporting documentation.
- The rating is:
“Excellent” — if a student joined the work of the class teacher from the first days of practice and conducted it systematically, pedagogically correctly, showed initiative and creativity in the study of students and the class team, as well as in the preparation and conduct of activities, timely drawn up a plan for educational work with students, correctly identified specific real educational tasks for the period of pedagogical practice regarding the entire class and individual students, successfully solved these problems using rational forms, methods, techniques and tools, creatively prepared and successfully carried out all kinds of educational activities, the recommended practice program, visited the class the class teacher and student teachers, mastered the technique of analysis and introspection, he met with the class and school documentation timely reported on supervised practice.
“Good” — if the student has fully completed the entire program of teaching practice, but has not shown sufficient initiative and creativity in studying the class, the work of the class teacher, subject teacher.
“Satisfactory” — if the student has completed the basic program of practice, but worked “at the prompt”, not systematically, without initiative, allowed methodological miscalculations in the educational work.
“Unsatisfactory” — if the student made serious pedagogical mistakes in conducting educational work, did not fulfill the practice program, and committed labor discipline violations. Based on the results of pedagogical practice, each student submits the following documents to the department in a week's time:
The list of reporting documents: diary of pedagogical practice; topics of 12 lessons signed by the teacher; abstract of 2 lessons signed by the teacher; extracurricular educational plan for the subject; summary of extracurricular activities in English; analysis of 1 lesson of a student-trainee; text report on teaching practice; recall of the subject teacher with the seal of the school.
- Babansky Yu. K. Teaching methods in a modern comprehensive school. — M.: Education, 1985.
- Galskova N. D. Modern methods of teaching foreign languages: M.: Glossa, Moscow, 2000.