Training of art teachers in Vietnam: case study in Mekong delta region | Статья в журнале «Образование и воспитание»

Отправьте статью сегодня! Журнал выйдет 1 июня, печатный экземпляр отправим 5 июня.

Опубликовать статью в журнале

Автор:

Рубрика: Высшее профессиональное образование

Опубликовано в Образование и воспитание №3 (39) июнь 2022 г.

Дата публикации: 03.06.2022

Статья просмотрена: 29 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Во, Ван Лак. Training of art teachers in Vietnam: case study in Mekong delta region / Ван Лак Во. — Текст : непосредственный // Образование и воспитание. — 2022. — № 3 (39). — С. 12-15. — URL: https://moluch.ru/th/4/archive/225/7374/ (дата обращения: 22.05.2024).



The article focuses on analyzing limitations on training of art teachers in Vietnam. A survey of art teachers in the Mekong Delta region shows the limitations on facilities, curriculum, and learning environment. Based on the figures in the article, it is seen that the current training of teachers lacks important factors in improving its quality so it is necessary to offer solutions for changing in training methods, in order to orient art teachers’ creative thinking and perception of beauty. The subjects provide opportunities to experience and communicate with local painters, approach the international art scene, which changes the current training method, in order to improve the sense and creativity of arts, to improve the current quality of art teachers.

Keywords: training, art teachers, real situation, Vietnam.

Introduction : The article has examined limitations on the current training of art teachers in Vietnam. It shows the limitations in the current methods and programs of training art teachers at high schools, thereby recognizing the role and position of arts education in the complete development of children at school. WHO said that “Culture and the arts are essential components of a comprehensive education leading to the full development of the individual. Therefore, Arts Education is a universal human right, for all learners, including those who are often excluded from education, such as immigrants, cultural minority groups, and people with disabilities” [17]. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an intensive and effective education strategy program to properly reflect the functions and duties of an art teacher at school. Due to these limitations, the goal of art has not been promoted effective in the current comprehensive education of children in high schools in Vietnam. The article reviews if the current program of training art teachers in Vietnam is consistent with the objectives and curriculum in secondary schools. Additionally, the author also offers specific solutions to facilities as insufficient investment from the State budget in training art teachers results in limitations on quality. The lack of information, conservative thinking in approaching the modern trend of the world. Thereby, the article also shows the lack of uniformity in the coordination of cultural systems (museums — craft villages — artisans — artists, etc.) in training teachers. This article also reviews the position and role of art teachers in the current high schools in Vietnam, thereby showing the factors that affect the current learning motivations and arts education of art educators.

From 2000 up to now, art teachers have professionally taught in primary and secondary schools so teachers who teach natural and social subjects or languages do not participate in teaching arts. The inclusion of Music and Art teachers in primary and secondary schools is a huge improvement in educational innovation in Vietnam. As it is unsatisfactory to train art teachers at colleges and universities, the quality of teachers is not high.

Literature review: The article has based on pieces of theoretical research in order to study this topic. For example, the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization made a report on “Road Map for Arts Education, 2006”, highlighting the role of art education in the context of ages, in which the training of art teachers plays a key and important role in promoting art education successfully [17]. Jerome S. Bruner, in ‘The Process of Education”, studied the development of children through stages that highlighted access to knowledge and comprehension during the development of personal factors [7]. Under a study in 2008 on “Understanding, Experiencing, and Appreciating the Arts: Folk Pedagogy in Two Elementary Schools in Taiwan”, Yu-Ting Chen conducted experiments on a traditionally pedagogical method in which local traditional art subjects are taught, so it has thereby evaluated and acknowledged that the arts education associated with folk heritage will bring advantages to help children develop comprehensively and foster their pride of nation, homeland and country [19]. “An Autoethnographical Study of Culture, Power, Identity and Art Education in Post-Colonial South Korea” carried out by Ok-Hee Jeong in 2017 shows a further development of art education after the colonial period, is the basic lesson for us to offer proper orientations to art education today [11]. Frances Alter et al, through a study on “Creative Arts Teaching and Practice: Critical Reflections of Primary School Teachers in Australia”, came up with experimental models that guide art education through practice to improve art creativity [6]. Pnina Bachar’s study on, “Art Student Perceptions of the Role of Community Service in Israeli Teacher Education”, is a survey of community factors in training art teachers in Israeli [12]. A study on “Art Education as Multiprofessional Collaboration” by Sanda Nevanen aimed to enrich children's imagination and encourage them to create and experience arts in the daily activities of kindergartens and schools [15]. An important critical essay by Christopher M. Schulte, “Children's Creation of Imaginary Worlds: Potentials and Practices: A Review Essay,” regards art development as a universal order through which children naturally grow, reach and pass officially defined aesthetic milestones that depend on children's access to a range of visual models and continuously through intermediates by the partnerships they encounter and set in their practice [4]. Dewey (1934) claimed that expressive objects (works of art) and expressive actions (artmaking) constituted an aesthetic experience and appreciation for Sophie’s art, design, and model of Sophie created children's aesthetic experiences [5]. Active participation in visual art is considered as a means to review pedagogical ideas in visual art [3]. Teachers are powerful. The values and beliefs teachers hold surrounding childhood, the visual arts and their role in learning fundamentally affect teaching practices in this domain, influencing how children then experience and engage in visual art [1]. It is useful to create games through drawing which stimulate children’s brain development and creativity in art education [9]. Moreover, the practice of teachers provides a rich range of opportunities for children to participate in various experiences through visual art [16]. Art education enables children to have experiences and develops their awareness and language [8]. Besides, considering the role of art for children in learning and acquiring knowledge, and how to draw can help them think up children's ideas [10].

Study area: This study focuses on 92 art teachers in primary and secondary schools in the Mekong Delta region (Southern Vietnam), which comprises 13 provinces and cities with a population of 17,330,900 people. With an area of 40,548.2 km², local people mainly depend on agriculture. This region has a lot of economic, educational and cultural difficulties and is also a delta area associated with the Mekong. The school system is unevenly distributed between urban and rural areas. The annual dropout rate accounts for the highest rate in Vietnam. Infrastructure serving cultural needs is limited. There is not any cultural and art museum, theater, etc. while community cultural centers are degraded and do not function properly. People have low qualification. Therefore, local residents are deficient in spiritual life.

Research methodology: In order to form a basis for assessing and acknowledging the limitations on training Art teachers in Vietnam, the study has adopted the methods of survey, observation and case study.

System of Specialized Faculties and Schools in the region: There are about 13 universities in the Mekong Delta region, but no university specializes in training in culture and arts. Through the survey, teachers who teach art in primary and secondary schools are trained from the art education departments of the local Universities: Art Education Department, Dong Thap University, Long An College of Education, Tien Giang University, Soc Trang College of Education, Tien Giang University, Tra Vinh University, An Giang University, some Art and Culture colleges such as Can Tho, Soc Trang, Bac Lieu, etc so they only mainly gain qualification at intermediate and college levels, advancing to the University of Arts Education.

The facilities of the Schools, Colleges and Universities of Education in the Mekong Delta region are very poor without specialized teaching tools. The classrooms do not meet the conditions for training the major of Arts education. No exhibition and gallery areas and a lack of conditions for access to and enjoying arts affect the quality of training.

Teaching staff: They are primarily lecturers who graduated from the majors of art, sculpture, art education so they are bachelors of and masters of Fine Arts in Visual Arts. Most of them are trained at Ho Chi Minh City Fine Arts University and Dong Thap University, and Saigon University in Vietnam.

Current curriculum used for training Art teachers: The curriculum lasts three years in colleges and four years in universities of Art education. From 2010 up to now, Vietnamese universities have shifted from the traditional model of training to the credit training program for majors under Art education. The curriculum of colleges of art education is usually divided into 90 credits (one credit = 15 theoretical classes, and 30–40 practical classes), and the undergraduate curriculum consists of 120–130 credits.

The curriculum is divided into General education knowledge; through which students can learn foreign languages; knowledge of national defense; General knowledge; Knowledge of physical education, basic and specialized knowledge of art education; join teaching practice in schools; write dissertations, and complete graduation works. In particular, the period allocated for the basic and specialized knowledge of art education ranges from 80–98 credits; teaching practice covers 14 credits and thesis (graduation works) occupies 7 credits.

The basic knowledge covers subjects such as Sculpture, Perspective, Anatomy, History of Vietnamese Art, World History of Art, Aesthetics, etc.

The specialized knowledge of art education covers subjects: Graphics, Layout, Realistic sketching, Decoration, Teaching methods, Application of information technology in teaching, etc.

Data source and analysis: We directly surveyed primary and secondary schools in the Mekong Delta region, where art teachers are teaching and working. All teachers who graduated with Colleges and Universities in Art Education. And we carried out surveys of 91 art teachers from 91 different primary and secondary schools and 22 questionnaires. Besides, we conducted interviews and obtained the following results:

When asked: Is the current curriculum used in training art teachers relevant to the curriculum in schools? 89 % say Yes, 10.99 % say No. Does the curriculum who covers basic subjects: Perspective, Anatomy, World Art History, History of Vietnamese Art, Sculpture, etc.) provide art teachers with specialized knowledge? 91.1 % say Yes, and 9.89 % say No. Do the contents of Realistic sketching meet shaping skills to teach in schools? 93.4 % say Yes, and 6.59 % say No. Do the subjects of creative practice through Material Layout well serve teaching in schools? 94.5 % say Yes, and 5.49 % say No. Does teaching practice well serve teaching in schools? 95.6 % say Yes, and 4.4 % say No. Do the subjects such as History of Vietnamese Art, World History of Art, Fine Arts, Art Studies, etc. serve well teaching in schools? 100 % say Yes, and 0.0 % says No. Are lecturers at Universities and Colleges qualified for teaching and training Art teachers in terms of skills and methods? 91.2 % say Yes, and 8.79 % say No. Is it necessary to include types of Contemporary arts in the current curriculum? 96.7 % say Yes, and 3.3 % say No. Is the amount of time allocated to the subjects: Graphics, Layout, Sketch, etc. in the curriculum used in training Art teachers with sufficient knowledge, skills and methods to teach in schools now? 94.5 % say Yes, and 5.49 % say No. Is the time allocation of General and Specialized subjects in the current curriculum used in training art teachers consistent with the current trend of art education? 82.4 % say Yes, and 17.58 % say No? Do the facilities and equipment for art education well serve training Art teachers today? 47.3 % say Yes and 52.75 % say No. Does the current curriculum used in training art teachers need changing to satisfy the requirements of art education in schools? 83.5 % say Yes, 16.48 % say No. Is the period to visit schools for practice and do teaching practice sufficient for Art teacher to gain experience to teach well in schools? 76.9 % say Yes, and 23.08 % say No. Do students who major in art education often visit the Fine Arts Museum or art galleries while studying and teaching art? 53.9 % say Yes, and 46.15 % say No. Should Modern art and Postmodern art be included in art education today? 74.7 % say Yes, and 25.27 % say No. Have Art teachers participated in professional activities at the local art and literature associations? 35.2 % say Yes, 64.84 % say No. In the Curriculum, do pedagogical training courses assist students well in teaching in schools? 100 % say Yes, 0.0 % says No. Should the curriculum used in training Art teachers include topics of creative experience, visits, creative practice with artists and graphic arts? 97.8 % say Yes, 2.2 % say No. Do Art teachers in schools improve the teaching quality when combining with local artists? 90.1 % say Yes, 9.89 % say No.

Discussion: Through the survey, it is seen that it is necessary to change the current curriculum used in training Art teachers. About 83.5 % would like to change the curriculum so that it matches the current trend. The current curriculum includes a lot of subjects that orient practical skills such as Graphics, Realistic sketching, etc. while they lack Art teachers' creative orientation. Due to the lack of facilities, there is insufficient space to exhibit and display students' works, which significantly affects the quality of training. About 52.75 % are not satisfied with the current facilities used for training art teachers. Additionally, there is no art museum in the Mekong Delta region, and the survey also shows 46.15 % of teachers have never visited any art museum. This results in limited access to perception and analysis of the work, which significantly affects the quality of teaching in schools. Furthermore, modern and postmodern art has been arisen since the late 19th century, but no study of modern art style is included in the current curriculum used in training art teachers. 74.7 % of teachers said that modern and post-modern art should be included in teaching art teachers. Currently, the study of some modules such as Graphics, Realistic sketching, Layout, etc., academic skills, styles make learners lack access to modern trends. It is necessary to improve the professional quality of art teachers in combination with the activities of the local Art and Literature Association, but the survey shows that 64.84 % of teachers have never participated in local art activities. Therefore, this results in limited access to creative activities in teaching. As a result, it is important to create specialized spaces, such as composing camps, exhibitions, and arts experience with famous artists because about 97.8 % of teachers expect to have more exchange programs to work with artists enabling them to improve their experience in arts. To improve the quality of training art teachers, teaching with local artists should be combined to improve the quality of teaching activities. About 90.1 % of teachers believe that such combination will result in high efficiency.

Thus, the training of a teacher who is fully capable of art practice and creative requires subjects that may orient thinking and creativity. On that basis, after graduation, art teachers can stimulate the creativity of students in schools. The current school education in Vietnam is facing a lot of limitations on orienting the factors of independence, thinking and creativity, which is shown in a study on “Creative Arts Teaching and Practice: Critical Reflections of Primary School Teachers in Australia,” by Frances Alter and et al [6]. It was said by Dewey (1934), that art played an important role in building people's realistic awareness. He believed that learners could gain creative skills and art knowledge through continuous art experiences. These experiences provided learners with opportunities to change or actively rebuild their reality [2]. Thus, the construction of extracurricular activities and practical experience with local artists enable art teachers to make art discoveries, to evaluate, analyze and find out aesthetic identity in each locality. Local identity is necessary in training art teachers because it is the spiritual foundation for art education in schools [13]. On that basis, after graduation, art teachers will orient students' creative activities. Students play a central role in the satisfaction of art experience through the exploration of art media and creative practice [14]. Besides, it is necessary to create space to enjoy art to enable art teachers to access art works, increasing the sense of aesthetics and creativity because artistic creation provides means for expressive communication in a non-verbal way. It provides cultural representation and symbols of thought and experience [18].

Conclusion: It is necessary to change the current curriculum used in training art teachers and update elements and trends of modern art to enhance the creative role of art teachers. Additionally, it is necessary to have programs and subjects combining local artists to improve the current quality of training, giving teachers more opportunities to experience specialized skills. It is required to develop policies on facilities: such as specialized classrooms, showrooms, etc. to improve the current quality of education. It is essential to promote diversity in the curriculum, create elective modules for students to access the elective courses. It is not advisable to bring compulsory courses that limit training in the current way. The curriculum used in training art teachers must aim to improve practical skills, teaching methods and the ability to organize art teaching in a creative manner.

References:

  1. Bae, J. H., Learning to teach visual arts in an early childhood classroom: The teacher’s role as a guide. Early Childhood Education, 31(4), 2004, 247–254.
  2. Chung-yim Lau, Towards Good Practice in Community-Based Arts Education in Hong Kong, The International Journal of Art & Design Education, 38.1, 2019.
  3. Craw, J., Shifting images: Thinking ‘the child’ in, through and with visual art: (re)configuring ‘the child’ inside/outside early childhood education in Aotearoa New Zealand. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, 2011.
  4. Christopher M. Schulte, Children’s Creation of Imaginary Worlds: Potentials and Practices: A Review Essay, International Journal of Education & the Arts, Volume 12 Review 5, 2011, 1–22.
  5. Dewey, J, Art as Experience, New York: Putnam, 1934.
  6. Frances Alter, Creative Arts Teaching and Practice: Critical Reflections of Primary School Teachers in Australia, International Journal of Education & the Arts, Volume 10 Number 9, 2009, 1–21.
  7. Jerome S. Bruner, TheProcess of Education, Harvard University Press, 1977.
  8. Kathy Danko-McGhee and Owner, First Encounters, First Encounters: Early Art Experiences & Literacy Development for Infants, International Art in Early Childhood Research Journal, Vol.5 No.1 2016.
  9. Maria Papandreou, Communicating and Thinking Through Drawing Activity in Early Childhood, Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 28 November 2017.
  10. Margaret Brooks, Drawing: The Consequential Progression of Ideas, New Zealand Research in Early Childhood Education Journal, Vol. 9, 2006.
  11. Ok-Hee Jeong, An Autoethnographical Study of Culture, Power, Identity and Art Education in Post-Colonial South Korea, The international journal of art & design education, 36.1, 2017, 9–20.
  12. Pnina Bachar, Art Student Perceptions of the Role of Community Service in Israeli Teacher Education, International Journal of Education & the Arts , Volume 10 Number 2, 2009, 1–25.
  13. Paul Duncum, Theoretical Foundations for an Art Education of Global Culture and Principles for Classroom Practice, International Journal of Education & the Arts, Volume 2 Number, 2001,
  14. Rosemary Doris Richards, Supporting Young Artists in Making Connections: Moving from Mere Recognition to Perceptive Art Experiences, The international journal of art &design education, doi: 10.1111/jade.12187, 2018.
  15. Saila Nevanen, Art Education as Multiprofessional Collaboration, International Journal of Education & the Arts Volume 13 Number 1, 2011, 1–25.
  16. Sarah Probine, The visual arts as a means to transmit and experience values, International Art in Early Childhood Research Journal, Volume 1, Number 1, 2018.
  17. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Road Map for Arts Education,The World Conference on Arts Education: Building Creative Capacities for the 21st Century Lisbon, 6–9 March 2006.
  18. Wright, S., Ways of knowing in the arts. In S. Wright (Ed.), Children, meaningmaking and the arts (2nd ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Pearson Australia Group Pty Lld, 2012.
  19. Yu-Ting Chen, Understanding, Experiencing, and Appreciating the Arts: Folk Pedagogy in Two Elementary Schools in Taiwan, Volume 9 Number 6, 2008, 1–18.

Ключевые слова

Vietnam, training, art teachers, real situation
Задать вопрос