Key words: terminology, semantic and lexical meaning, oil and gas industry.
Terminology plays a very important role in linguistics and it always remains a problem that attracts the attention of scholars.
Before defining and discussing what oil and gas terms are, it is important to review the concept of «terms». Before the normal solution of the problems related to the development of the term of the language and its regulation, it is necessary to clarify the original meaning and characteristics of the concepts such as «terminology», «terminology» and «nomenclature». Misrepresentation of the meaning of that or any other term system member, i. e. the word «term», can lead to errors.
H. Bagyev, A. Ovezov, R. A. Budagov, G. O. Vinokur, A. A. Reformatskyi, Y. M. Galkina Fedaruk, A. B. Definitions of the word «word» in the works of famous linguists such as Swerkun differ from each other. Some of them point out that the word «term» and the word in common use are fundamentally different from each other, emphasizing that the term performs a special service. «G. O. Vinokur said that the term is not a special word, but a unit with a special service, that the special service of the word as a term is nominative, that the scientific term necessarily means the name of concepts, the outstanding Turkologist N. A. Baskakov said that the term performs a significant or differential service, and Y. M. Galkina Fedaruk In terms of science, technology, art, economy, it corresponds to a certain concept (it is not just a word, but it acts as a structure and term)" says O. Akmammedov, a Turkmen scientist who conducted a scientific study on terms.
In fact, to determine the original meaning of the term in a comprehensive and complete way, its main service, its difference from words in common use, what requirements the word must meet to enter the term system, what parts the term is made of, what it means, what word groups can be involved in making a term, the lexicon of terms and identifying the relationship between words in common use is a very important issue.
A term is a word or phrase that corresponds to and represents a concept in a scientific or other field. The concept of a term is limited, as all terms are made up of words, but not just any word can be a term. As signs that characterize the term and distinguish it from words in common use, the following can be known mainly:
a) the term is ambiguous;
b) it is precise, acts as the name of a scientific concept and is beyond emotionality, expressiveness, modality;
c) the term is form-neutral;
d) the term is used in the same sense in most languages or in the system of other scientific fields.
Modern scientists believe that the formation of polysemy occurs due to the division of the meaning of the term or the transfer of the name to another concept, when common words remain in the meaning of their derived words and are divided into secondary meanings. Today, a significant number of terms are defined in phrases rather than individual words. According to linguists, 70 to 90 percent of words occur as phrases.
Many terms have also been created at the expense of the language itself. An example of this is the English language terms such as administration, analog system, network, broadcasting, which were also formed at the expense of the English language itself. Words are created with the help of the language itself.
External linguistic conditions have had a great influence on the creation and integration of terms related to the oil and gas industry, and through those influences, the system of terms of the national language has been formed, developed and improved on the basis of internal linguistic regularity. This development continues its development at a strong pace even today, and it is connected with the introduction of innovations and new technologies. For example, terms related to the digital education system, which helps to enrich the vocabulary of the language, are used more often in all spheres of social life, that is, in television and radio broadcasts, in the lessons taught in secondary, special and higher education schools in the province, and in specialized special and higher education schools. Although these terms appear together in the text with ordinary words, they differ from them mainly by the same meaning and one aspect of the form, they consist of words or phrases and denote scientific concepts.
Because oil and gas is considered one of the most important energy sources of today and is considered one of the most important resources. Oil and gas are used as fuel in various industries such as transportation, agriculture, heating and power generation. Some petroleum components are also used in the production of dozens of important chemicals.
The rate of oil consumption is increasing due to human development and chronological dependence on this raw material as the main source of energy. Oil prices play an important role in global economic indicators. Today, the term oil and gas is less studied than other terms.
Metaphor term formation is a productive way of creating terms at different stages of the development of the analyzed terminology. In addition, there is a predominance of metaphorical terms, and the basis of the transition of metaphor is human biological and social existence. As a basis for metaphorical transfer, the high performance of everyday symbols can be explained by the fact that everyday things are primarily a part of human life, for example, anodic nutrition (healthy nutrition), oil age (oil expiration date), corrosion fatigue.
Based on the above examples, it should be said that names in oil and gas terminology are not the only means of expressing a specific concept. They act as the main, dominant part of speech to express scientific and technical concepts. In addition, business terms cannot be independent terms that are not related to the name term known in the Turkmen language, because the Turkmen terminology of the oil and gas industry includes a large number of term combinations.
During the research, it was concluded that the most consistent, widespread and standard method of forming terms in oil and gas terminology is the lexical-semantic method. Metaphor terminology is a productive method of creating specific terms of the analyzed terminology. The predominance of metaphorical terms is explained by the fact that the basis of the transition of metaphor is the biological and social existence of man and that man is the most important part of nature.
- Danilenko V. P. Russian terminology: Experience of linguistic descriptions. — M.: Nauka, 1977.
- Leichik V. M., Shelov S. D. Linguistic problems of terminologies and scientific and technical translation. Part II. — M.: All-Union Center translations, 1990.