The following article discusses stylistic devices or literary devices, which make speech more colourful and most characteristic features, are expressed with figurative meaning. They create genuine imagery to the reader in old poems. Stylistic devices are divided into types according to their word-building: phonetic, lexical and syntactical stylistic devices. Among lexical stylistic devices the most frequent are metaphor, simile and allusion are found in Magtymguly Pyragy’s poems. Allusions were used as similes, metaphors, metaphorical epithets, periphrases in the poems of poet frequently. In the article, sufficient examples of allusions are given with their origin.
Keywords: stylistic device, allusion, poem, poet, figurative meaning, reference, plot.
Allusions are created with experience, knowledge of writers, poets to give same feelings to the readers. Several definitions to stylistic device allusion in the following:
Allusion is an indirect reference, by word or phrase to a historical literary, mythological, biblical fact or to a fact of everyday life made in the course of speaking or writing. [5, 48.]
Allusion is the act of conveying a lot of information with few, concise means. Allusion is different way of art forming from giving previous plots, telling stories in full. [3, 116.]
Allusion is not only a decoration or way of showing knowledge, but also it expresses the author’s opinion or it is a stylistic device, which is efficient, effective art that inspires and deepens. Most allusions are made to facts with which the general reader should be familiar. However, allusions are made to things, and facts which need commentary before they are understood. 
An allusion is when an author or poet makes an indirect reference to some idea, figure, other text, place, or event that originates from outside the text. It could also refer to something that happens earlier in the text; this is often called an “internal allusion” (as opposed to a regular, or “external,” allusion). 
Furthermore, allusions are confused with allegory, allusion, foreshadowing.
Magtymguly used alluisons reffering to historical figures, legends narrating the stories or mentioning the works about them or epiс related to them in his poems.
If we observe at the 18th century Turkmen classical literature, first with references found in Magtymguly's works that he is not like other poets and is rejected in literature, his own that it differs significantly from references that have lost their effectiveness is visible.
The information provided in the reference is considered to be known to educated, well-read people, and so is the puzzle. It is the knowledge of those people to know where the information comes from was one of the requirements indicating the level. But it’s closed, it’s open non-reference is also used in folklore, proverbs and idioms. For example, “It is better to be poor in your native land, than to be king in Egypt”. The root of the proverb comes from the story and legend about Yusuf and Zuleikha. “To be king in Egypt” informs that Yusuf was sold into slaýery and later held a high-ranking position in Egypt, but left his country. Reader familiar with that plot understands it well, but if, one is not familiar with that legend will think about far country found in dessans.
Other historical figure is Qarun, (Kharun, Harun), also known as Coresus is considered as one of the richest and most arrogant man in history, and believed who invented coin. Magtymuly mentioned him in his poems, like Let’s go together (Ýör biläni) “Karun wondered taking lots at wealth”. In the poem “Turned into” (Bir Käre döndi):
Oh, all friends and people,
All have found their own character.
Just like Kharun , collecting fortune,
They all turned into nothing.
Kharun or Qaroon, also known as Croesus, is considered to be one of the richest men in history. He was an Israelite who lived in Egypt but refused to pay heed to Prophet Musa’s (Moses) call. He is rumoured to have separate rooms filled with bags of gold, silver and all other precious gems. He lived in the grandest possible palace and the townsmen envied his fabulous possessions.
Qaroon took pride in his riches and status and believed that his wit and skills alone had brought him the wealth that he possessed. This opulence was in stark contrast to the plight of the people who were suffering and were barely able to meet their needs. Musa saw this and tried to convince Qaroon about the virtues of humility and generosity but it proved futile. Qaroon became even more defiant and shrugged off the matter with indifference. One day, the earth shook and the people of the town rushed out of their homes only to see that Qaroon’s palace had been swallowed by the earth. Qaroon, who was in the habit of counting and recounting his riches, had also been buried along with his riches. This made the people realize that he was not to be envied but pitied for his lack of faith in God. 
In the poem “It’s a time of” (Zamanydyr) “Let him gather wealth as Karun, Treasure is empty — it’s his time”. Poet mentions here with stylistic device simile.
In the lines of poem “If there is a robe” (Don bolsa)
Magtymguly knew unkindness of the enemy,
Despite the grief be happy, act bravely,
This world will never be enough for you
If you are as wealthy as Kharun.
Magtymguly compares mean character who is not satisfied with his owning and as low-minded stingy, ungenerous characters are accused. He was an Israelite who lived in Egypt but refused to pay heed to Prophet Musa's (Moses) call. He is rumoured to have separate rooms filled with bags of gold, silver and all other precious gems. This allusion gives the whole plot of the poem. The poem “Fate not succeeded” (Ykbal bolmady) also contains many other historical places and figures which are indication of historical sources:
Humayun’s palace built Aoran,
Where is of world was divided by Fereidun,
Forty cities filled with gold by Kharun,
Whose eyes filled with sand, not with money.
Humayun palace is known as Humayuns’s Tomb in Delhi, which was built in 1570, is of particular cultural significance. It was built by Mughal empire, was the first garden tomb on the Indian subcontinent. However, it was not built by Aoran. Aouran house was compared to that palace. Karun wasn’t satisfied with his riches. His people advised him to be generous. His enormous wealth made him arrogant.
Poem “Eminence is yours” (Aly siziňdir) stanza “ Like Alexander the Great , the river crossing is yours.” In addition, Alexander the Great was mentioned as allusion to historical figure in the poems. Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon. He succeeded his father Philip II to the throne in 336 BC at the age of 20, and spent most of his ruling years conducting a lengthy military campaign throughout Western Asia and Egypt.
In the works of Magtymguly allusion was used as a new method of description since Nyzami Ganjavi’s (great poet of Persian literature 1141–1209) period [Mustakov, 114] Especially referring to dessans in Eastern literature was used as allusions in his poems. “I fell in love with you” (Söýmüşem seni) poem is full of allusions of iconic love stories of eastern literature. There Yusuf and Zuleikha, Layli and Majnun (Layla and Majnun is an old story of Arab origin, about the 7th-century Arabic poet Qays ibn al-Mulawwah and his lover Layla bint Mahdi.), Ibrahim- Sarah, Perhat and Shirin, Seypelmelek-Mahjemal, Warka and Gulshah, Wamyk and Uzra, Ganbar and Arzy, Zohre and Tahyr, Shasenem and Garyp,
These examples were given above are the examples of allusion are clear and specific. However, there are closed, hidden enigmatic forms of allusions in the poems. They refer to work or event its title is not given, but that work or event, legend is understood immediately by readers.
Using allusions in poet’s creative works as a tradition of using stylistic devices are derived from myths as well. “Soul is in Inspiration” (Niçe ýaşyndadyr) is an example of this. The context of the poem is connected with the myths of ancient East. It describes the bull carrying earth.
There are many literary devices in Magtymguly’s poems used carefully. Consequently, every word in his poems proper names, historical events are repeated. Thus from, historical point of view allusions were used in poets works prove that Magtymguly broadened his mind, knowledge and eloquence studying world literature, which made him great poet. From stylistic point of view, they are great value.
- Magtymguly Saýlanan eserler iki tomluk. — Aşgabat, 1983.
- Magtymguly poems from Turkmenistan. — Ashgabat, 2014.
- Mustakow R., Magtymguly we Gündogar edebiýaty — Aşgabat, 2014.
- Galperin I. R., Stylistics — Moscow, second edition, 1977.
- Sachkova E. V., Lectures on English Stylistics — Moscow, 2012.