Reforms in the education of Uzbekistan: state and prospects | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: Педагогика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №20 (362) май 2021 г.

Дата публикации: 16.05.2021

Статья просмотрена: 254 раза

Библиографическое описание:

Хотамова, Г. К. Reforms in the education of Uzbekistan: state and prospects / Г. К. Хотамова. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2021. — № 20 (362). — С. 203-206. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/362/81090/ (дата обращения: 04.12.2022).



One of the main indicators of the level of development of the state is the competitiveness of its education system, science, technology transfer. This is a factor that ensures the innovative nature of the economy, therefore, in developed countries, they attach great importance to the continuous development of this area. In recent years, fundamental changes have been taking place in the education system of Uzbekistan, aimed at the formation of highly qualified personnel in demand on the labor market. In this regard, the country's leadership is taking active steps and measures to reform the education system. The article highlights the key changes in the education system of Uzbekistan and the main challenges facing the country in the coming years.

Keywords: education, innovative development, higher education, scientific and technological progress, reforming, international systems PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS.

Одним из основных показателей уровня развития государства служит конкурентоспособность ее системы образования, науки, трансфера технологий. Это фактор, обеспечивающий инновационный характер экономики, поэтому в развитых странах придают огромное значение непрерывному развитию данной сферы. В последние годы в системе образования Узбекистана происходят кардинальные изменения, направленные на формирование высококвалифицированных кадров, востребованных на рынке труда. В связи с этим руководство страны предпринимает активные действия и меры по реформированию системы образования. В статье освещаются ключевые изменения в системе образования Узбекистана и основные задачи, стоящие перед страной в ближайшие годы.

Ключевые слова: образование, инновационное развитие, высшее образование, научно-технический прогресс, реформирование, международные системы PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS.

Attention to the field of education is becoming especially relevant all over the world in the age of globalization and information technology, when the level of a country's development is determined not only by socio-economic, cultural indicators, an assessment of strength and power, but also largely relies on its intellectual potential. Indeed, it is scientific and technological progress, the foundations of which are laid in the educational environment, that is the central link in the country's sustainable development and prosperity. The World Bank report «Changing the level of welfare of nations» notes that it is human capital, i.e. the totality of knowledge, talents, skills and abilities of people constitutes the main wealth of the country. Thus, the well-being of developed countries is provided by human capital by 68 %, and in developing countries — only by 41 %.

The most important strategic goal of Uzbekistan is to become one of the developed countries of the world and ensure a decent life for its citizens. A clear, clear and deeply thought-out program of action is being implemented in the country, and the organizational, legal and practical, consistent and systemic measures taken fully contribute to the implementation of democratic, political and economic reforms, social transformations aimed at creating ample opportunities for the comprehensive implementation of professional, intellectual and the spiritual potential of a citizen and society as a whole.

In conditions when the role of the central agent of all transformations is assigned to an educated, politically and socially active person with a high level of legal consciousness and culture, the issues of the progressive development of the education system are becoming increasingly important. As the President of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev rightly noted on this occasion: «the success... of reforms, our gaining a worthy place among the modern developed countries of the world, are primarily associated with the development of science, education and upbringing in the country, our competitiveness in these areas» [2].

It should be emphasized that the policy pursued by Uzbekistan in the field of education is aimed at ensuring consistent and systematic implementation of the principles proclaimed by the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, where the right to free general education is guaranteed [3].

Over the past few years, a number of decrees and resolutions of the President have been adopted that raise the higher education system to a new, higher level (Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On measures for the further development of the higher education system» No. PP-2909 of 20.04.2017 No. 18, Art. 313, No. 19, Art. 335, No. 24, Art. 490, No. 37, Art. 982; Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On additional measures to improve the quality of education in higher educational institutions and ensure their active participation in ongoing country of large-scale reforms «No. PP-3775 dated 06/05/2018; Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan» On measures to radically improve the system of training highly-demanded qualified personnel and the development of scientific potential at the National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek in 2019–2023; «Oliy malumotli muthassislar tayyorlash sifatini oshirishda itisodiet sogalari wa tarmoқlarining ishtirokini yanada kengaytirish chora-tadbirlari trisida ”gi Ўzbekiston Respublikasi Presidency 2017 yil 27 jul ПҚ-3151-sonli karori; Onun Hujjatlari Malumotlari Milliy Bazasi, 05/25/2018, 06/18/5447/1269-sleep, 08/01/2018, 06/18/5497/1604-sleep; 05/30/2019, 06/19/5733/3216-sleep.).

On April 20, 2017, by the Decree of the President, the Program for the Comprehensive Development of the Higher Education System for the period 2017–2021 was approved, which includes measures to radically improve and qualitatively improve the level of higher education.

The procedure for admission to universities was changed, exams began to be held from August 1 to 15, and their results began to be published the next day. Testing for admission to universities in creative areas has been canceled. Since September 2017, the teaching load for the teaching staff has decreased in favor of conducting research work. The correspondence form of education has been restored. The salaries of university professors have doubled.

The independence of universities has increased. Starting from the 2018/2019 academic year, leading higher educational institutions independently develop curricula and programs in the relevant areas and specialties of education, taking into account the demand of consumers of personnel. Universities are allowed to carry out additional admission of students at higher contract rates.

As part of the reform of the education sector, teacher training curricula have been revised and brought in line with international standards, the national student assessment system has been modernized in cooperation with international systems such as PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS [8].

In cooperation with international rating agencies QS, THE, indicators for assessing the quality of education have been developed to determine the national rating of the country's universities, and their results have been announced for the third year already. For the international recognition of educational documents, work has begun on their compliance with the requirements of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED / ISCED 2011). In 2020, Uzbekistan joined the European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA) as an observer.

On October 8, 2019, the Presidential Decree «On Approval of the Concept for the Development of the Higher Education System of the Republic of Uzbekistan for the Period up to 2030" was issued, which provides for a phased transition to the introduction of advanced higher education standards, a gradual transfer of the educational process to a credit-modular system, which should be implemented in 16 % of higher education institutions in 2023, 57 % in 2025 and 85 % in 2030. At the same time, the transition to this system has already begun. Tashkent University of Information Technologies named after Muhammad al-Khwarizmi (TUIT) is gradually implementing the transition to the credit education system from the 2018/2019 academic year. The national, law universities, the University of Oriental Studies and the Tashkent Medical Academy began work in the same direction.

In general, in the period from 2017 to 2021, more than 1.7 trillion soums (more than 203 million US dollars in equivalent) were allocated for the implementation of measures to improve the higher education system,of which 1.2 trillion soums (about $ 144 million equivalent)- for the construction, reconstruction and overhaul of educational and laboratory buildings, gyms and student residences, over 500 billion soums (about 60 million US dollars in equivalent) — for equipping with educational and laboratory equipment, furniture and inventory, the creation of interuniversity laboratory complexes of joint use, as well as the development of information and communication technologies (Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On measures for the further development of the higher education system» dated April 20, 2017 No. PP-2909 No. 18, Art. 313, No. 19, Art. 335, No. 24, art. 490, No. 37, art. 982).

In pursuance of the President's Resolution «On measures for the further development of the higher education system», each higher educational institution establishes close partnerships with leading foreign universities and centers. On the basis of established partnerships with foreign universities, it is envisaged to annually attract to Uzbekistan at least 350 foreign highly qualified teachers and scientists to the educational process in universities.

Work continues to attract leading foreign universities to open their branches in Uzbekistan. If, before 2017, training was organized in the capital branches of 7 foreign universities, namely Westminster International University, Singapore Institute for Management Development, Turin Polytechnic University, Moscow State University, V. Plekhanov Russian State University of Economics, Gubkin Russian Institute of Oil and Gas, South Korean University INHA, then only in 2018 13 new universities began operating in Uzbekistan, in particular, the International University of Tourism «Silk Road» in Samarkand, a branch of the National Research Technological University «MISIS» (Russia) in Almalyk and Bucheon University of South Korea in Tashkent.

Such an increase in the number of universities, including branches of foreign and local universities, as well as the emergence of non-state universities will help to increase the coverage of young people with higher education and its quality. It should be noted that in the future it is planned to hold educational forums with countries such as France, Germany, Japan, Turkey, China, South Korea and India.

The purpose of all these systemic and consistent transformations carried out in the education system is to create conditions for the formation of a harmoniously developed personality. This is due to the fact that the final success of reforms in the country largely depends on the education and upbringing of young people, the formation of their worldview on the basis of modern knowledge, their development? Already now it is necessary to think deeply about this issue, to educate personnel that meet the requirements of the time and the pace of reforms. From the decision of spirituality and enlightenment. In particular, in countering such threats as terrorism and extremism, today it is no longer effective to fight only with their consequences, the main task is to eradicate the root causes of these threats, to educate young people in the spirit of high ideals of humanism. Uzbekistan stands for just such an approach to solving the most important problems of our time. Of great importance in this regard is the initiative of President Sh. Mirziyoyev «Enlightenment against ignorance and violence» (The initiative of the President of Uzbekistan is unanimously supported by the world community. Https://www.un.int/uzbekistan/news/initiative of the president of Uzbekistan is unanimously supported -world-community), which arouses great interest and broad support in the world community.

At the same time, it is important to understand that solving complex problems in the education system requires not only good teachers and educators, but also good managers, the so-called «education managers» — independent, enterprising, competent and experienced leaders who know how to work with young people, create and implement development programs.

Already now, the position of a manager or a general manager is being introduced in the country's universities. This is a person who is directly involved in financial and economic management. The new structure of the distribution of roles will help to focus more on the learning process, methodology and attracting the best teachers. In the Samarkand International University of Tourism “Silk Road” it is already operating ” [7].

The formation of the competitiveness of universities is important. The main tool for solving this problem is fundamentally new regulatory documents in the field of education (educational standards), which are currently being developed taking into account the modern experience of organizing the educational process in the leading universities of the world.

When developing new educational standards, the main task is to train modern, highly professional specialists who have the most modern knowledge with analytical and creative thinking, skills in using advanced information and communication technologies and are able to effectively apply all this in their daily practice. The goal is to make our education meet international standards, to introduce advanced foreign methods of assessing knowledge, which will be the key to the quality and efficiency of the education system.

References:

  1. Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On approval of the Concept for the development of the higher education system of the Republic of Uzbekistan for the period up to 2030" October 8, 2019
  2. Congratulations of the President of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev to teachers and mentors of Uzbekistan. 29–09–2017.
  3. The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan. article 41, Tashkent. Oct 2018
  4. Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On measures for the further development of the higher education system» No. PP-2909 of 20.04.2017
  5. Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On additional measures to improve the quality of education in higher educational institutions and ensure their active participation in the large-scale reforms carried out in the country» No. PP-3775 dated 05.06.2018; 6. Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On measures to radically improve the system for training highly-demanded qualified personnel and develop scientific potential at the National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek in 2019–2023;
  6. «In 10 years, Uzbekistan should become an educational hub for Central Asia». Source: http://www.gazeta.uz/ru/2018/09/18/education/).
  7. Victor Abaturov, CEIR “Priorities of education in Uzbekistan. Review of Reforms ”. Economic Review No. 12 (250) 2020
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): PIRLS, PISA, TIMSS, ISCED, CEIR, ENQA, INHA, THE, TUIT, система образования Узбекистана.


Ключевые слова

higher education, education, innovative development, PIRLS, scientific and technological progress, reforming, international systems PISA, TIMSS

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