The article is devoted to the social project planning of the system of occupational guidance. The article is based on the author's conclusions, which is based on the theory of the Soviet psychologist Klimov E. A. The article presents a project model of occupational guidance in the system of university degree. The purpose of the model: to attract school leavers to their subsequent matriculation into the educational institution. The presented model solves the following problems: informing about current majors of an educational institution; university promotion; mediation between graduating students and employers; consulting in occupational guidance of school leavers and students.
Key words: opinion surveys, model, occupational guidance.
The model of the system of occupational guidance includes social diagnostics, project planning and technologization of the system of occupational guidance.
The author used the theory of the Soviet psychologist E. A. Klimov “I want — I can ‒ I must”, where the main factors of choice are the interests, abilities of the school leaver and the relevance of the profession [1, с. 1]. The author made the following conclusion on this theory and on the his own choice.
Modern school leavers choose an educational institution and a major. Future tertiary student begin preparing for a future major and choosing an educational institution in grade 11.
A person thinks about his further professional career in grades 9–11. The student chooses the future direction: humanitarian, mathematical or technical. The decision is based on the information and advice of parents, friends. Personality analyzes this information.
Next, the student chooses a major. It depends on three factors: the ability of the student, career plans, desired salary. The first factor does not change. The other two factors are subject to change by the inner circle. The reason is the teenager's desire to get approval from adults (external motive).
After choosing a future major and the necessary modules for exams, the school leaver chooses an educational institution. Two factors play an important role: the proximity of the educational institution to the school leavers’ place of boarding and the prestige of the educational institution. The school leaver also analyzes the opinions and stories of inner circle who studied in this educational institution.
After passing the exams, the school leaver makes the last choice: financial. The school leaver chooses training on a contractual or budgetary basis. Here the school leaver own motives are important, which consist of the financial and social aspects of studying.
The above algorithm took shape in the following conclusions:
- A fundamental factor in the choice of educational direction is the school leaver’s personal abilities.
- The fundamental factor in the choice of a major school leaver is the result of the exams.
- The fundamental factors in the choice of the educational institute school leavers are proximity to home and family.
The purpose of social diagnostics of the system of occupational guidance is to collect information about the research problem. The research problem lies in the contradiction between the existing number of applicants, for example, at the Institute of Social Sciences and Mass Communications, and the need to create a model of a system of occupational guidance.
The following directions of social diagnostics: student and schoolchildren survey, expert survey, focus group and SWOT analysis.
The author ascertained in the section of modeling and project planning a occupational guidance system that the model developed by the author is descriptive, functional and memetic. The goals, objectives and parameters of the project planning were determined:
Purpose: to attract students of schools and community colleges with the aim of their admission to this higher educational institution.
Occupational guidance tasks:
- Informing about the existing professions and majors of the Institute.
- Popularization of the Institute and its department.
- Ensuring interaction with employers.
- Providing professional counseling.
Occupational guidance criterias:
- Occupational guidance system is based on the capabilities of the Institute.
- Subjects of the occupational guidance system: the Institute, employers, school and community colleges administrations, students, school leavers and their parents, guardians.
Parts of the system of occupational guidance work:
- Announcements, posters, booklets, information pages, SMM.
- Conversations, lectures.
- Information on the need for labor in the region (providing information about vacancies on the site).
- Open Day.
- Meetings with graduates. Through the involvement of Department of work with youth Belgorod.
- Teacher-parent meetings.
- Briefing of career advisors.
- Testing, questioning (self-study of students on the recommendations of career advisors without control).
- “One day” ‒ schoolchildren participate in student activities.
- “Night at the university” ‒ students demonstrate the majors of the Institute, schoolchildren solving problems specific to this majors.
- The game «Debate» ‒ a test of schoolchildren in their own oratorical skills.
- Professional recommendations on employment (letters of recommendation to students distinguished in academic activities from the head of the department and the director of the Institute).
In the final section ‒ project planning and technologization of the system of occupational guidance. The model includes cases ‒ independent projects that need separate technologization.
The technologization of the occupational guidance system model is as follows:
- Organizational and methodical work.
- Prepare a working group (career advisors).
- Preparation of handouts materials. Information work.
- Problem diagnosis.
- Telephone work. Information work.
Stage of activity.
- Campaigning in schools. Information work.
- Agitation in community colleges. Information work.
- Partnership with the employer and graduates community.
- Professional activisation of schoolchildren.
- Work in the admissions office.
- Professional consulting.
- Information work.
- International activity.
- Comprehensive impact on the employer.
- Open days.
The final stage.
- Evaluation of the occupational guidance system.
- Modernization of the occupational guidance system and the completion of the project.
In conclusion, the developed model of an occupational guidance system is an integrity.
- Klimov, Е. A. Psihologiya professional'nogo samoopredeleniya / Е. A. Klimov. ‒ Rostov n/D: Feniks, 1996. ‒ 512 s.
- Povarnin, S. I. Kak chitat' knigi ⁄ S. I. Povarnin. ‒ M.: Kniga, 1971. ‒ 80 s.
- SHapovalova, I. S. Rannyaya proforientaciya shkol'nikov: otnoshenie i gotovnost' sub»ektov / I. S. SHapovalova, A. V. Kisilenko // Sociologiya obrazovaniya. ‒ 2015. ‒ № № 4. ‒ S. 111–128.