In the article the authors investigate and make reasoned conclusions of the use of innovative teaching methods in education. The types and advantages of innovative methods are considered education in higher education, describes their features, which are focused on the formation of knowledge in the modern world. Attention is paid to innovative approaches such as training, brainstorming method, synectics and Delphi method. Training is a form of interactive learning and can be used in all forms of learning. Today it is one of the most convenient forms for teaching and learning. The method of brainstorming is designed to make decisions on innovation level. Synectics is an improvement of the brainstorming method with using analogies of five levels, which stimulates creative activity as much as possible students. The Delphi method is designed to predict and support decision-making. Studies conducted using the Delphi method can be carried out as a disciplinary, and interdisciplinary and inter-faculty levels at the university.
Keywords: innovative teaching methods, interactive methods, training, brainstorming method, Delphi method, synectics.
В статье авторы исследуют и делают обоснованные выводы об использовании инновационных методов обучения в образовании. Типы и преимущества инновационных методов рассматриваются в высшем образовании, описываются их особенности, которые ориентированы на формирование знаний в современном мире. В статье было обращено внимание на такие новаторские подходы, как тренинги, метод мозгового штурма, синектика и метод Делфи. Тренинг — это форма интерактивного обучения и может использоваться во всех формах образования. Сегодня это одна из самых удобных форм для студентов и преподавателя. Метод мозгового штурма предназначен для принятия решений на уровне инноваций. Синектика-это усовершенствование метода мозгового штурма с использованием аналогий пяти уровней, что максимально стимулирует творческую активность студентов. Метод Делфи предназначен для прогнозирования и поддержки принятия решений. Исследования, проведенные с использованием метода Делфи, могут проводиться как на дисциплинарном, так и междисциплинарном и межфакультетском уровнях в университете.
Ключевые слова: инновационные методы обучения, интерактивные методы, тренинг, метод мозгового штурма, метод Делфи, синектика.
In the conditions of modern society, experiencing a time of radical changes in the economic, cultural, political and educational spheres, there is a need for well-educated creative people, competent professionals who are able, if necessary, to rebuild the direction of their activities. In this regard, it is difficult to overestimate the role of a foreign language as a means of communication.
The basis of teaching a foreign language are certain means, methods and forms, technologies, principles and laws used by the teacher to achieve the goal of mastering a foreign language by students at the level of their native language. One way to achieve this goal is to use heuristic methods in foreign language classes, which allow to develop cognitive, creative and organizational abilities of students.
Currently, there is an active search and implementation of new forms and methods of teaching students. In this regard, the main tasks that should be set before a modern teacher, are the following: training in interactive mode; increasing students’ interest in the studied discipline; the approach of the educational process to the practice of everyday life, namely: communication skills, adaptation to rapidly changing living conditions, socialization, increase of psychological stress resistance, training in skills of settlement conflicts, etc. Thus, the main task of a qualitatively new educational system is reduced to achievement of steady interest of students to the studied subject, to self-education since the first years of training, as well as to attract to scientific searches. To do this, you must initially set up a system of psychological thinking students to be able to gain knowledge and master the future profession. Student as the future specialist should understand how to get social and professional skills, he will be able to apply them in practice. Exactly innovative methods and technologies in teaching can help the teacher in decision of tasks.
Initially, teaching should include two main components: sending and getting information. The main problem of many teachers is that they try to spread knowledge through the prism of their understanding of the subject, focusing only on own experience and beliefs. Under the control of individual knowledge of the student he tries to reproduce the obtained material as accurately as possible, while ignoring own judgment and reflections, so as, in his view, he cannot match the contents of the object or distort the resulting material. In this situation lose both sides: the teacher who does not develop his subject towards the requests of learners, and the listener who receives a highly standardized material, often unsuitable for use in real, dynamic developing economic life. Innovative teaching methods provide an assessment of creative approaches to understanding the discipline, as well as the ability to find non-standard solutions to standard problems . This is especially important and related to the reform of higher education. Today, there are a number of trends which are connected, firstly, with a multi-level system of training, and secondly, with powerful enrichment of universities with modern information technologies, and, thirdly, with the inclusion of Kazakhstani universities in the update to meet the requirements of international standards.
Today the criterion of value of the teacher changes: he is valued not for the fact that he knows a lot, but for the fact that he is able to effectively organize the process of self-development of the student and himself, which is especially important in modern conditions. Education should be an interesting and exciting process, contributing to personal and professional growth of a person, and not a formal procedure for obtaining a certificate. From these positions the following interactive forms of education can be distinguished, contributing to the solution of designated tasks:
− brainstorming method;
− Delphi method.
Given the modern approaches to the organization of the educational process in universities, a large attention should be paid to self-education of the future specialist who wants to deepen knowledge of their specialty. This is exactly what contributes to the training, which are the material for independent work of the student.
Training is a form of interactive learning and can be used in all forms of education: part-time, evening, as well as in forms with the use of methods distance learning both in electronic and paper form. Training not only allows you to form the ideological component of the subject, but also instill skills with the subject. Today it is one of the most convenient forms for teacher and student. Training can broaden, deepen, creatively refine and discuss both seminars and via the Internet technology, Internet conferences, round tables. Methodical features of training much wider than is commonly believed. They allow you to pay attention to each given question, stimulate additional appeal to literature and sources, play an important role in awakening the attraction of scientific understanding to the subject. All these qualities not fully disclosed by modern education. One of the advantages of the training is the fact that it is a tool of active involvement of all students in the learning process. Training is a special method of obtaining knowledge, which is characterized by the fact that participants learn from their own experience, where everyone can see and realize their advantages and disadvantages.
The following interactive approach promotes creative development of the individual and stimulating activity of students in the classroom — a method of brainstorming. Brainstorming method is development of solutions by free generation of participants’ ideas in the procedure. This method is designed to make decisions on innovation level. It imposes clear requirements on the conditions of the procedure and analytical skills of the members of the idea processing group.
A brainstorming method, also called brainstorming, was proposed in 1953, by the American inventor and entrepreneur Osbourne . Its purpose was the development of recommendations and ideas on the organization of the collective search procedure and making proposals in areas such as science, technology, trade and management. Currently, this method is well known and widely used. Competently planned and conducted brainstorming allows you to achieve such results, which are not possible with other methods. A method of brainstorming involves a creative approach to solving problems and tasks. The advantage of the method in teaching is that with its help the teacher may involve students who are not normally active in class and do not express their opinion publicly. When conducting classes using the method brainstorming such opinions will not only be heard, but will also benefit when generation of ideas, as the main difference between the method and other procedures for finding solutions — formation of the widest possible range of ideas and ways of solving the problems. The basis of the methodology of the method is to go beyond the traditional submissions of the group in the area under consideration and the nomination of the most extraordinary offers. The more alternative ideas will be expressed, the more and original will be the solution of the problem.
The absence of criticism as the main condition of the method allows group members not to be afraid that the teacher or a more reputable member the groups will take the idea negatively. The brainstorming method allows students to show yourself, unleash your creativity and submit ideas that are otherwise would not have been voiced.
Brainstorming is carried out in two stages. The first stage is the collective generation of ideas. At this stage, the conditions are created for to put forward as many diverse ideas and proposals as possible. The duration of one session of collective generation of ideas is no more than 20–30 all ideas expressed are recorded in the minutes. The basic rule of brainstorming is a strict ban on any criticism of the suggestions made.
All proposals should be accepted for consideration and recorded without exception, no matter how fantastic and even absurd they seem. There shall be no a preliminary assessment of the opinions expressed, and it is forbidden to express their attitude even facial expressions and gestures. Only in this way you can create an environment, the most conducive to a free creative search for solutions of problems. Moreover, an extraordinary statement and in some sense fantastic ideas should not only be tolerated but also welcomed.
The second stage is the analysis of the ideas put forward. During this phase, the analysis and generalization of these proposals, conclusions are made and the final decision version is formulated. To do this, two groups are created: the group of idea generators and the group of experts-analysts.
Further improvement of the brainstorming method is synectics. This method was proposed by V. J. Gordon, who formulated it as a method problem solving, when he led the group on the study of inventions . The synectics in English the word “synectics” — “the combination of heterogeneous elements”. As with brainstorming, to use synectics groups are formed, but with the only difference, that these groups permanent. Also in the synectics model assault valid criticism, but only one that allows you to improve or develop ideas expressed. As a result, the student gets used to constant criticism and is not afraid of it, students know how to accept criticism adequately, and how to improve the tool.
The technology of carrying out of a synectic storm similar to the technology of brainstorming with the active use of analogies. In practice, five types of analogies are used, called synectic operators. Direct analogy — comparison of the studied facts with similar facts from others areas of science or practice. The most common are comparisons economic organizations as socio-economic systems with systems of another kind: biological (firm as a plant), technical (business processes as managers impulses and movement of the machine), etc. It is obvious that for the implementation of this operator synectics requires students who have diverse knowledge and are prone to systemic analysis of problems and objects.
Personal (subjective) analogy allows you to imagine yourself the subject (part subject) or the phenomenon in question in the problem. A personal analogy requires a student to bright imagination and abilities to reincarnation, comparable with artistic. The main objective of the subjective analogy is to make it possible to discern such aspects of the studied problems that due to the inertia of thinking cannot be detected when using normal reflection. In other words, the student needs to find his individual image and get used to it, presenting themselves as part of the considered problems. In this case, images and analogies can be any, including those that are the first glance seem ridiculous or funny. The main thing is that they help the participant to Express what is almost impossible to Express using logical conclusions and rational reasoning.
A symbolic analogy is the discovery of paradoxes and contradictions in familiar and understandable facts. A symbolic analogy is sometimes called an operator positive skepticism. It consists in the detection of paradoxes and contradictions in familiar and understandable facts. Applying a symbolic analogy, the participant must first, to recognize the main quality of the phenomenon or problem, to identify opposite quality to it, and then try to determine their combination. Another in words, it is necessary to Express in one compact phrase the connection between the disparate concepts that most succinctly characterize the analyzed phenomenon or object.
Figurative analogy — mental replacement of the studied phenomenon or object by some in a manner convenient for subsequent comparison with another image taken as a reference or standard. The task of the figurative analogy is the mental replacement of the phenomenon under study or object in some way, convenient for later comparison with another way, accepted as a standard or standard. This comparison is intended to help identify the hidden opportunities and identify solutions to the problem. A huge role in the formation of figurative analogy is played by the student's imagination, his ability to notice emotionally- the artistic similarities of various phenomena and objects.
Fantastic analogy — a symbolic description of the desired future or unreal situations in which there are no objective laws and phenomena, impeding the adoption of the desired decision in the real world. This operator is synectics as well as the previous ones, it requires from the participants of the procedure developed imagination and creative emancipation. But in this case, the freedom of creative thinking should to be the maximum. When saying fantastic analogies, the main emphasis is on symbolic description of the desired future or unrealistic situations in which there are no objective laws and phenomena that prevent the adoption of the desired decision in real world.
For the organization of the method of synectics it is necessary to form a special creative group of students (group Senator), to create special conditions of its operation, formulate the problem and based on the analysis of the associations expressed to build final decision. Sessions using synectics is recommended for the final course on social and economic disciplines.
The next way to increase the motivation of students to creative activity training sessions-problem solving using the Delphi method. This method is intended for forecasting and decision support. Its feature is the presence of feedback on the results of each stage of the procedure. It got its name from legends of Delphic oracles, so sometimes called the method of Delphic Oracle's. This method was developed by O. Helmer and his colleagues for scientifically grounded forecasting the future, and today it is used to obtain forecasts for problems and situations for which there is not enough information .
In universities in the development of work programs and teaching AIDS socio-economic disciplines this method is often claimed as used interactive technology, however, in practice teachers rarely use it. On in our opinion, this is a methodological omission, as the Delphi method has a beneficial effect on the student's Outlook, because for a more accurate (for example, economic) forecasting he needs to have knowledge of related disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, regionalism and others, which motivates the student to self-education and self-discipline.
The essence of the Delphi method is to carry out several stages of the written anonymous survey of students. Moreover, the second and subsequent stages of the questionnaire contain processed results of previous questionnaires, as well as conclusions and experts’ comments. The intervals between the stages of the survey can be from several hours to several months, depending on the complexity and scale of the task. The thus, the method is based on the principle of gradual increase in the degree of results’ reliability.
The main advantages of the Delphi method when used in training sessions you can include the following:
− the survey is conducted anonymously;
− students do not have the opportunity to discuss the results at the interpersonal level communication, which reduces the influence of individuals on the decision-making process;
− the main distinguishing feature of the Delphi method is the presence of the reverse links to the results of previous survey steps, allowing each participant change or adjust your original opinion without fear of being subjected criticism;
− different types of information can be used to process information obtained in stages statistical and qualitative methods, including taking into account the dynamics of change collective opinion.
The main advantage of the method over other interactive approaches lies in his anonymity. This factor plays a key role, as it allows completely eliminate the element of any pressure on the participant. Anonymity allows student to express an opinion without fear of criticism or condemnation from the side third parties.
The universality of the method also lies in the fact that the study can take part completely unfamiliar to each other people, students from different courses or faculties. This allows you to conduct research with a large number of participants not only within one discipline, but in interdisciplinary, interdepartmental section, stimulating in this way the scientific activity of the university. The teacher is recommended to conduct research using the Delphi method on initial and final courses for students. This technique will allow to compare results and track how the opinion of students has changed over the period of their studies.
When selecting modern teaching methods, it is necessary to take into account the following criteria, according to which the methods should be used:
− to create an atmosphere in which the student feels comfortable and free; to stimulate the interests of the student, to develop his desire to practically use the AI, as well as the need to learn, thereby making it real achievement of success in the student's mastery of the subject;
− to affect the personality of the student as a unique, to involve his emotions, feelings and sensations in the educational process, to relate to his real needs, to stimulate his speech, cognitive, creative abilities;
− to activate the student, making him the main actor in the educational process, actively interacting with other participants in this process;
− to create situations in which the teacher is not a central figure; the student must realize that learning a foreign language is more connected with his personality and interests than with the methods and means of teaching set by the teacher;
− to teach a student to work on the language on their own at the level of physical, intellectual and emotional capabilities, to ensure the differentiation and individualization of the educational process;
− provide for various forms of work in the classroom: individual, group, collective, fully stimulating activity, students, their independence, creativity, etc.
Assimilated from their (methods) foreign language should be perceived by students as a tool and means of social interaction with partners in communication.
In contrast to the traditional method, in the communicative direction, the content side is, along with the language form of the selection criterion, which together with the form of training, simulating a communicative act, increases the interest of students in the learning process [6, 86]. However, if you change the shape of the training action, in the communication method transferred the unit of learning identified by the conventional method, on the basis of increasing the number of linguistic signs, and not the substantive functions: words, phrase, units, i.e., the text, various sizes. Thus, there is a contradiction between the main selection criterion — content and assimilation units — since neither the values of language units, nor their functions, nor the rules of combining values are the object of purposefully organized assimilation. Throughout the training, the student performs one speech action, training the form of expression of the finished content in one communicative act, which does not lead to the development of the ability to carry out speech interaction.
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